Thursday, November 10, 2016


Latin word, meaning: "well"

Friday, November 4, 2016


Żmudź refers to Polish name for Samogitia, a region of Lithuania.

Monday, October 3, 2016


Person, in this case, living in Lotharingia.

Tuesday, September 27, 2016


Pax (from Latin) means: "peace", "take it easy".


Włodyka - lesser knight in 14th/15th century in Poland. Part of the knighthood but with lesser financial position. They enjoyed a higher social status than ministeriales.

Włodyka, Władyka

In this case this term was used in Poland in that era in regard to middle or lower nobility. It translates to "lord" or "elder".

Wednesday, September 14, 2016


The "grzywna" was a measure of weight, mainly for silver, commonly used throughout medieval central and eastern Europe, particularly in the Kingdom of Poland and Kingdom of Bohemia (Czech: hřivna).

Grzywna was also a unit of measure of a unit of exchange, and as such used as money in the 10th–15th centuries. Silver ingots acted as commodity money before the widespread use of minted coins. more

Saturday, September 3, 2016


The European lute and the modern Near-Eastern oud descend from a common ancestor via diverging evolutionary paths. The lute is used in a great variety of instrumental music from the Medieval to the late Baroque eras and was the most important instrument for secular music in the Renaissance.[2] It is also an accompanying instrument, especially in vocal works, often realizing a basso continuo or playing a written-out accompaniment. The player of a lute is called a lutenist, lutanist or lutist, and a maker of lutes (or any similar string instrument) is referred to as a luthier.


Kurpie is one of a number of ethnic regions in Poland, noted for its unique traditional customs, such as its own types of traditional costume, traditional dance, and distinctive type of architecture and livelihoods. Kurpie is also the name of the people of this culture.

Monday, August 8, 2016


Urus or aurochs is an extinct type of large wild cattle that inhabited Europe, Asia and North Africa. It is the ancestor of domestic cattle. The species survived in Europe until the last recorded aurochs died in the Jaktorów Forest, Poland in 1627.